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Important Prefixes with Examples

Giga
G
1000000000 =109 e.g.: 1 GW = 1 billion Watts
Mega
M
1000000 =106 1 MW = 1 million Watts
Kilo
k
1000 =103 1 KW = 1 thousand Watts
Milli
m
0,001 =10-3 1 mm = 1 thousandth metre
Micro
m
0,000001 =10-6 1 mm = 1 millionth metre
Nano
n
0,000000001 =10-9 1 nm = 1 billionth metre

Important International System Units with Conversion into Former Units still used.

Length Metre m
Mass Kilogramme kg
Time Second s
Force Newton N = kg m/s2 1 N = 0,102 kp
Torque Newtonmeter Nm 9,81 Nm = 1 kpm
Energy (work) Joule J = Nm
Heat quantity Joule J 1 J = 0,239 cal
Power Watt W = Nm/s 1 KW = 1,36 PS = 860 kcal/h
Pressure Pascal Pa = N/m2 100000 Pa = 1 bar = 10 mWS
Electric
Current
Ampere A
Temperature Kelvin K 1 k = 1*C

Torque Conversion Factors
Given units of measurement x Factor = Desired unit of measurement

given unit of
measurement
Desired unit of measurement
= Ncm = Nm = kpcm = kpm = lbf.in. = lbf.ft
Ncm 1 0,01 0,10197 0,00102 0,0885 0,00738
Nm 100 1 10,197 0,10197 8,851 0,7376
kpcm 9,807 0,09807 1 0,01 0,868 0,0723
kpm 980,07 9,807 100 1 86,796 7,233
lbf.in. 11,298 0,11298 1,152 0,01152 1 0,0833
lbf.ft. 135,58 1,3558 13,825 0,13825 12 1

Material Characteristics

Density
g/cm3
Expansion
1/°C
Melting point °C Module of elasticity N/mm
Aluminium 2,7 0,000024 660,1 72000
Lead 11,3 0,000029 327,3 16000
Iron (Steel) 7,86 0,000012 1540 210000
Gold 19,3 0,000014 1063 79000
Copper 8,9 0,000017 1083 126000
Zinc 7,1 0,000026 419 94000
Glass 2,2-2,9 0,000008 800-1500 68000
Air 0,0013 0,0036
Wood 0,5-0,7 10000
Plastics:
PS 1,05 0,00008 3400
PP 0,9 0,00018 1200
ABS 1,05 0,00010 2500
Conversion Table, Inches to Inch Decimals and mm
in.
dec.in
mm
0 0 0
1/64 0.015625 0,3969
1/32 0.03125 0,7938
3/64 0.046875 1,1906
1/16 0.0625 1,5875
5/64 0.078125 1,9844
3/32 0.09375 2,3812
7/64 0.109375 2,7781
1/8 0.125 3,1750
9/64 0.140625 3,5719
5/32 0.15625 3,9688
11/64 0.171875 4,3656
3/16 0.1875 4,7625
13/64 0.203125 5,1594
7/32 0.21875 5,5562
15/64 0.234375 5,9531
in.
dec.in
mm
1/4 0.25 6,3500
17/64 0.265625 6,7469
9/32 0.28125 7,1438
19/62 0.296875 7,5406
5/16 0.3125 7,9375
21/64 0.328125 8,3344
11/32 0.34375 8,7312
23/64 0.359375 9,1281
3/8 0.375 9,5250
25/64 0.390625 9,9219
13/32 0.40625 10,3188
27/64 0.421875 10,7156
7/16 0.4375 11,1125
29/64 0.453125 11,5094
15/32 0.46875 11,9062
31/64 0.484375 12,3031
in.
dec.in
mm
1/2 0.5 12,7000
33/64 0.515625 13,0969
17/32 0.53125 13,4938
35/64 0.546875 13,8906
9/16 0.5625 14,2875
37/64 0.578125 14,6844
19/32 0.59375 15,0812
39/64 0.609375 15,4781
5/8 0.625 15,8750
41/64 0.640625 16,2719
21/32 0.65625 16,6688
43/64 0.671875 17,0656
11/16 0.6875 17,4625
45/64 0.703125 17,8594
23/32 0.71875 18,2562
47/64 0.734375 18,6531
in.
dec.in
mm
3/4 0,75 19,0500
49/64 0,765625 19,4469
25/32 0,78125 19,8438
51/64 0,796875 20,2406
13/16 0,8125 20,6375
53/64 0,828125 21,0344
27/32 0,84375 21,4312
55/64 0,859375 21,8281
7/8 0,875 22,2250
57/64 0,890625 22,6219
29/32 0,90625 23,0188
59/64 0,921875 23,4156
15/16 0,9375 23,8125
61/64 0,953125 24,2094
31/32 0,96875 24,6062
63/64 0,984375 25,0031
1 1 25,4

Newton-Meter Nm in Foot-Pound lbf.ft. (1 Nm = 0.738 lbf.ft.)

Nm
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
ft. - lbs.
0
10
0
0.74
1.48
2.21
2.95
3.69
4.43
5.17
5.90
6.64
7.38
8.12
8.86
9.59
10.33
11.07
11.81
12.54
13.28
14.02
20
30
14.76
15.50
16.2
16.97
17.71
18.45
19.19
19.93
20.65
21.40
22.14
22.88
23.62
24.35
25.10
25.83
26.57
27.31
28.04
28.78
40
50
29.52
30.26
31.00
31.73
32.47
33.21
33.95
34.69
35.42
36.16
36.90
37.64
38.38
39.11
39.85
40.59
41.33
42.07
42.80
43.54
60
70
44.28
45.02
45.76
46.49
47.23
47.97
48.71
49.45
50.18
50.92
51.66
52.40
53.14
53.87
54.61
55.35
56.09
56.83
57.56
58.30
80
90
59.04
59.78
60.52
61.25
62.00
62.73
63.47
64.21
64.94
65.68
66.42
67.16
67.90
68.63
69.37
70.11
70.85
71.59
72.32
73.06
100
73.80
74.54
75.28
76.01
76.75
77.49
78.23
78.97
79.70
80.44

Newton-Meter Nm in Kilopond-Meter kpm (1 Nm = 0.102 kpm)

Nm
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
kpm
0
100
0.00
1.02
2.04
3.06
4.08
5.10
6.12
7.14
8.16
9.18
10.20
11.22
12.24
13.26
14.28
15.30
16.31
17.33
18.35
19.37
200
300
20.39
21.41
22.43
23.45
24.47
25.49
26.51
27.53
28.55
29.57
30.59
31.61
32.63
33.65
34.67
35.69
36.71
37.73
38.75
39.77
400
500
40.79
41.81
42.83
43.85
44.87
45.89
46.91
47.93
48.95
49.97
50.99
52.00
53.02
54.04
55.06
56.08
57.10
58.12
59.14
60.16
600
700
61.18
62.20
63.22
64.24
65.26
66.28
67.30
68.32
69.34
70.36
71.38
72.40
73.42
74.44
75.46
76.48
77.50
78.52
79.54
80.56
800
900
81.58
82.60
83.62
84.64
85.66
86.68
87.70
88.71
89.73
90.75
91.77
92.79
93.81
94.83
95.85
96.87
97.89
98.91
99.93
100.95
1000
101.97
102.99
104.01
105.03
106.05
107.07
108.09
109.11
110.13
111.15

Foot-Pounds lbf.ft in Newton-Meter Nm (1 lbf.ft = 1.356 Nm)

ft.lbs.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Nm
0
10
0
1.36
2.71
4.07
5.42
6.78
8.14
9.49
10.85
12.20
13.56
14.92
16.27
17.63
18.98
20.34
21.70
23.05
24.41
25.76
20
30
27.12
28.48
29.83
31.19
32.54
33.90
35.26
36.61
37.97
39.32
40.68
42.04
43.39
44.75
46.10
47.46
48.82
50.17
51.53
52.88
40
50
54.24
55.60
56.59
58.31
59.66
61.02
62.38
63.73
65.09
66.44
67.80
69.16
70.51
71.87
73.22
74.58
75.94
77.29
78.65
80.00
60
70
81.36
82.72
84.07
85.43
86.78
88.14
89.50
90.85
92.21
93.56
94.92
96.28
97.63
98.99
100.34
101.70
103.06
104.41
105.77
107.12
80
90
108.48
109.94
111.19
112.55
113.90
115.26
116.62
117.97
119.33
120.68
122.04
123.40
124.75
126.11
127.46
128.82
130.18
131.53
132.89
134.24
100
135.60
136.96
138.31
136.57
141.02
142.38
143.74
145.09
146.45
147.80
(1 lbf.ft. = 12 lbf.in.)

Table of Coefficients of Friction mges.

mges. with fabrication condition
Bolt
Nut
unlubricated oiled MOS2
Mn-phosphated without retreatment 0,14-0,18 0,14-0,15
without retreatment without retreatment 0,14-0,18 0,14-0,17
Zn-phosphated without retreatment 0,14-0,21 0,14-0,17
galvanized appr. 8 mm without retreatment 0,125-0,18 0,125-0,17 0,10-0,12
cadmium plated appr. 7 mm without retreatment 0,08-0,12 0,08-0,11
galvanized appr. 8 mm galvanized appr. 5mm 0,125-0,17 0,14-0,19
cadmium plated appr. 7 mm cadmium plated appr. 6 mm 0,08-0,12 0,10-0,15